Yeniseysk was founded in 1619 as a stockaded town - the first founded town on the Yenisei river. It played an important role in Russian colonization of East Siberia in the 17th–18th centuries. The waterway from the River Ob towards Lake Baikal was for ceturies the main trade route in the region.

Yeniseysk due to its winning position in middle of this way was growing quickly, and became the base for Cossacks who conquered the Northern, Southern and Eastern areas of Siberia for Russia. Yeniseysk is a historical preserve town, as numerous original buildings are protected by the State.

In the beginning of the 18th century a few scientific expeditions arrived at Yeniseysk for research work and investigation of the Siberian Northern and Eastern territories. In the 19th century the discovery of the golden lodes in taiga around the town attracted lots of gold miners, manufacturers and merchants that served to further growth of the town, and to the development of its economics and culture. Nowadays this small town have more then 100 historical monuments.